Kappa is a similar measure to `accuracy()`

, but is normalized by
the accuracy that would be expected by chance alone and is very useful
when one or more classes have large frequency distributions.

## Usage

```
kap(data, ...)
# S3 method for data.frame
kap(
data,
truth,
estimate,
weighting = "none",
na_rm = TRUE,
case_weights = NULL,
...
)
kap_vec(
truth,
estimate,
weighting = "none",
na_rm = TRUE,
case_weights = NULL,
...
)
```

## Arguments

- data
Either a

`data.frame`

containing the columns specified by the`truth`

and`estimate`

arguments, or a`table`

/`matrix`

where the true class results should be in the columns of the table.- ...
Not currently used.

- truth
The column identifier for the true class results (that is a

`factor`

). This should be an unquoted column name although this argument is passed by expression and supports quasiquotation (you can unquote column names). For`_vec()`

functions, a`factor`

vector.- estimate
The column identifier for the predicted class results (that is also

`factor`

). As with`truth`

this can be specified different ways but the primary method is to use an unquoted variable name. For`_vec()`

functions, a`factor`

vector.- weighting
A weighting to apply when computing the scores. One of:

`"none"`

,`"linear"`

, or`"quadratic"`

. Linear and quadratic weighting penalizes mis-predictions that are "far away" from the true value. Note that distance is judged based on the ordering of the levels in`truth`

and`estimate`

. It is recommended to provide ordered factors for`truth`

and`estimate`

to explicitly code the ordering, but this is not required.In the binary case, all 3 weightings produce the same value, since it is only ever possible to be 1 unit away from the true value.

- na_rm
A

`logical`

value indicating whether`NA`

values should be stripped before the computation proceeds.- case_weights
The optional column identifier for case weights. This should be an unquoted column name that evaluates to a numeric column in

`data`

. For`_vec()`

functions, a numeric vector.

## Value

A `tibble`

with columns `.metric`

, `.estimator`

,
and `.estimate`

and 1 row of values.

For grouped data frames, the number of rows returned will be the same as the number of groups.

For `kap_vec()`

, a single `numeric`

value (or `NA`

).

## Multiclass

Kappa extends naturally to multiclass scenarios. Because of this, macro and micro averaging are not implemented.

## References

Cohen, J. (1960). "A coefficient of agreement for nominal
scales". *Educational and Psychological Measurement*. 20 (1): 37-46.

Cohen, J. (1968). "Weighted kappa: Nominal scale agreement provision for
scaled disagreement or partial credit". *Psychological
Bulletin*. 70 (4): 213-220.

## Examples

```
library(dplyr)
data("two_class_example")
data("hpc_cv")
# Two class
kap(two_class_example, truth, predicted)
#> # A tibble: 1 × 3
#> .metric .estimator .estimate
#> <chr> <chr> <dbl>
#> 1 kap binary 0.675
# Multiclass
# kap() has a natural multiclass extension
hpc_cv %>%
filter(Resample == "Fold01") %>%
kap(obs, pred)
#> # A tibble: 1 × 3
#> .metric .estimator .estimate
#> <chr> <chr> <dbl>
#> 1 kap multiclass 0.533
# Groups are respected
hpc_cv %>%
group_by(Resample) %>%
kap(obs, pred)
#> # A tibble: 10 × 4
#> Resample .metric .estimator .estimate
#> <chr> <chr> <chr> <dbl>
#> 1 Fold01 kap multiclass 0.533
#> 2 Fold02 kap multiclass 0.512
#> 3 Fold03 kap multiclass 0.594
#> 4 Fold04 kap multiclass 0.511
#> 5 Fold05 kap multiclass 0.514
#> 6 Fold06 kap multiclass 0.486
#> 7 Fold07 kap multiclass 0.454
#> 8 Fold08 kap multiclass 0.531
#> 9 Fold09 kap multiclass 0.454
#> 10 Fold10 kap multiclass 0.492
```